Want to improve your child’s self-esteem? Praise him constantly and stop anything that may hurt his perception of being a competent, achieving person. With every success, your child will see that he is a winner and will continue to achieve. Sounds like good advice doesn’t it? Well, it is terribly misguided.
In the spring 1999 issue of American Educator, Carol S. Dwek’s article entitled, “Caution – Praise Can Be Dangerous” examines the effects of praising children.
In almost 30 years of research Dweck has found that children who were constantly praised could not adapt well to new challenges. They were obsessed with their intelligence and with proving it to others. These children constantly feared failure and believed that not succeeding at a task meant they were dumb. This stifled their growth leading them to give up easily or to not try at all when they perceived that something was too difficult. Dweck also knew of students who did not pride themselves as much on their intelligence, but rather pn their work ethic and ability to face challenges. A study on the two groups was done to see if praising children for being intelligent could cause them to become dependent on praise.
One group (Group A) was praised for their intelligence in working a puzzle, “Wow, you must be smart at this.” and another group (Group B) was praised for their effort, “I can tell you worked really hard.” The result? Group A wanted to quit when they were given a more difficult puzzle, but Group B enjoyed the new challenge and was willing to work harder.
In summary, Group A’s confidence depended on their success with the problems. The group members needed praise believing that if they couldn’t do something well, they would rather not do it at all. Group B simply saw the more difficult problem as a challenge and was willing to put forth the effort to solve it. Group A crumbled under the pressure, but Group B retained their intellectual self-esteem.
So, what should we do? Dweck recommends focusing on a student’s potential to learn, teaching them to value challenge, effort, and learning over looking smart. Otherwise, a lost ballgame or “F” on a test could weaken an already fragile self-image.
Well, what if the outcome is not favorable and your child still did his best? Encouragement is what is needed here and in almost every situation. There is a small but definite difference between encouragement and praise. Tell your child that he’s a hard worker or that you’re proud of the way he handled a particular situation. This will let him know that you believe in him and don’t expect him to be perfect. Then, as tougher challenges arise, he’ll be able to answer them because he believes in his own strengths and does not need the constant praise of others.